A HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF PRENATAL ATTACHMENT

Source: A HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF PRENATAL ATTACHMENT

John Bowlby’s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby’s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives. Although the theoretical construct of maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) requires continued theoretically-driven research, existing studies have associated this proposed construct with health behaviors, marital relationship, depressive symptoms, and the postpartum mother-infant relationship, pointing toward its relevance for academicians and clinicians devoted to the service of women and infants. This is a scientific article on Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Click on the title and it will take you there.

Infant Massage, Bonding, Babywearing and Attachment

The Fourth Trimester

During my time of research in 1975-1976, I made many trips to the medical library, studying everything I could find regarding the effects of touch between parents and infants. I read through anatomy books and edited some of my massage routines, working with the babies’ internal organs.

For example, the tummy strokes follow the intestinal tract and colon, which helps strengthen these organs and they begin to do their work earlier than they might have; I discovered that many researchers and physicians called the first few months of life the “fourth trimester.” Newborns are helpless; they cannot get up and walk like many animals.

We are like kangaroos in this way; our babies need a few months more with the soothing touch of a parent’s massage, skin-to-skin contact, and carrying. Their gastrointestinal systems are not yet mature, and many infants experience “colic,” or painful gas and digestion. The elements of massage that help babies eliminate fecal matter and gas are the sweeping of palms down from rib cage to pelvis, and the clockwise strokes over the stomach that move trapped matter down and out.

Parent-Infant Bonding – A New Concept in 1976

In 1976, Dr.s Kennel and Klaus published their groundbreaking research on bonding. Their work inspired me so much, along with what I read in Montague’s research, I decided to massage my baby every day from the beginning. It was just the right timing — in our culture there was a kind of explosion of interest in, and acceptance of the importance of the elements of bonding and good birth practices. In September of 1976, I gave birth to my first child. I began massaging him, starting with the massage I had learned in India and gradually adding and revising strokes and the order of the strokes, and writing information that would become handouts in my classes later on. I took the notes that would be the foundation of my book, Infant Massage, a Handbook for Loving Parents

What is Bonding?

Bonding is a basic phenomenon that occurs throughout the universe. In terms of physics, it is established within the energy field from which particles arise. Two particles of energy brought into proximity spin and polarize identically, even when separated. Two living cells of a human heart brought into proximity begin to beat together. Throughout the animal kingdom and in human life as well, affectionate and tactile bonds between mother and young ensure healthy interaction and development for time to come. Proximity between parent and infant, via sensory experiences and loving interactions, brings them into an important synchrony with each other.

Imprinting

Animal researchers discovered imprinting long ago, when ethologist Konrad Lorenz showed that ducklings were biologically programmed to follow and bond with the first moving object they saw. Meanwhile, Harry Harlow and his associates studied monkeys and goats and found critical bonding times and elements that were important not only for the infant’s physical survival but for what we might call emotional health as well. Monkeys would abuse their infants if their own bonds as infants were disturbed.

In animals, the crucial period for bonding is usually a matter of minutes or hours after birth. The mother bonds with her infant through licking and touching, a type of massage, which in turn helps the infant to adjust physically to life outside the womb. If mother and infant are separated during this time and are subsequently reunited, the mother will often reject or neglect her young. As a result, the newborn may die for lack of the mother’s stimulation, even if fed by other means.  

The Elements of the Bonding Process

I was determined to include as many of the elements of bonding in our massage as possible: eye-to-eye contact, skin-to-skin contact, singing or humming to my baby, allowing natural odors, adding movements to maintain flexibility. The closeness of mother and baby allows the baby to smell the mother; a newborn baby can distinguish the smell of his or her mother from that of another mother. Parents can also recognize their baby from smell alone. Because of this important aspect of bonding, I decided to emphasize the use of unscented oil.

Resilience, as it relates to massage, is an indication of the quality of the bonding/attachment the baby develops with the parent or caregiver. It is through the elements of bonding that babies learn to be resilient, to bounce back from intense experiences.

MOMKISS2_m

The Difference Between Bonding and Attachment

In studies paralleling animal research, doctors John Kennell and Marshall Klaus, among others, have revealed that there is also a sensitive period for bonding in humans. The critical period seems less rigidly defined and may continue for months, even years, after childbirth. Another word often used in connection with bonding is attachment. While bonding is specific to birth and our connection with the animal kingdom, attachment happens over time and can occur between any two beings. 

Frank Bolton, in his book When Bonding Fails describes bonding as a one-directional process that begins in the biological mother during pregnancy and continues through birth and the first days of her baby’s life. Conversely, attachment is an interaction between parents and children, biological or not, that develops during the first year they are together and is reinforced throughout life. He describes it as the feeling that the other is “irreplaceable.”

Often these two terms are interchangeable, because in humans the bonding period is so loosely defined as to merge into the attachment process. Kennel and Klaus define bonding as “a unique relationship between two people that is specific and endures through time.” That definition could also apply to the word attachment.

Kennel and Klaus cited cuddling, kissing, and prolonged gazing as indicators of a developing bond. Dramatic evidence in their studies and others correlates the lack of early bonding and attachment with later abuse, neglect, and failure to thrive. Mothers who are separated from their babies during the newborn period are often more hesitant to learn and unskilled in basic mothering tasks. Even very short separations sometimes adversely affect the relationship between mothers and infants.

Lack of Bond Affects Babies in U.S.

Shockingly, new studies confirm that four out of ten babies born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent. In the early 70s, there was an upsurge of interest in birth and bonding, with parents choosing home births, rooming-in at hospital births, and learning infant massage and other things that brought parents and infants together. But unfortunately, that progress has decreased as time went on, in spite of the upsurge of programs like infant massage.

According to a study at Princeton University, 40 percent of infants in the U.S. live in fear or distrust of their parents, and that translates into aggressiveness, defiance and hyperactivity as they grow into adults. Of that number, 25 percent don’t bond with their parents because the parents aren’t responding to their needs. A tragic 14 percent find their parents so distressing that they avoid them whenever possible.

Sociologist Sophie Moullin of Princeton, lead author of the study, along with coauthors from Columbia University, analyzed more than 100 research projects, including data collected by a U.S. longitudinal study of 14,000 children born in 2001, to reach their conclusions. Yet critical, bonding, the researchers contend, is amazingly simple to achieve. The study notes,“When a parent responds to a child in a warm, sensitive and responsive way – picking up the child when he cries, and holding and reassuring him – the child feels secure that they can meet their needs.” 

Four Out of Ten Babies Do Not Form a Strong Bond

Incredibly, four out of ten infants born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent and, according to the authors of an article on the subject, “they will pay for that the rest of their lives.” Other research shows that simply touching, or caressing a newborn is critical to the infant’s sense of security. Infant massage, therefore, becomes an incredibly important art for parents to learn.

Usually it is the mother who is the central focus of studies like these, probably because the mother is often the main caregiver, especially in infancy. But a study at the University of Iowa two years ago concluded that “being attached to dad is just as helpful and being close to mom.” A similar study in 2012 from the Imperial College London found that fathers were especially important in helping the infant avoid behavioral problems later in life. If the father is remote or distracted, the child is more likely to be aggressive.

Infant Massage, Bonding, Babywearing and Attachment

The Fourth Trimester

During my time of research in 1975-1976, I made many trips to the medical library, studying everything I could find regarding the effects of touch between parents and infants. I read through anatomy books and edited some of my massage routine, working with the babies’ internal organs.

For example, the tummy strokes follow the intestinal tract and colon, which helps strengthen these organs and they begin to do their work earlier than they might have; I discovered that many researchers and physicians called the first few months of life the “fourth trimester.” Newborns are helpless; they cannot get up and walk like many animals.

We are like kangaroos in this way; our babies need a few months more with the soothing touch of a parent’s massage, skin-to-skin contact, and carrying. Their gastrointestinal systems are not yet mature, and many infants experience “colic,” or painful gas and digestion. The elements of massage that help babies eliminate fecal matter and gas are the sweeping of palms down from rib cage to pelvis, and the clockwise strokes over the stomach that move trapped matter down and out.

Parent-Infant Bonding – A New Concept in 1976

In 1976, Dr.s Kennel and Klaus published their groundbreaking research on bonding. Their work inspired me so much, along with what I read in Montague’s research, I decided to massage my baby every day from the beginning. It was just the right timing — in our culture there was a kind of explosion of interest in, and acceptance of the importance of the elements of bonding and good birth practices. In September of 1976, I gave birth to my first child. I began massaging him, starting with the massage I had learned in India and gradually adding and revising strokes and the order of the strokes, and writing information that would become handouts in my classes later on. I took the notes that would be the foundation of my book, Infant Massage, a Handbook for Loving Parents

What is Bonding?

Bonding is a basic phenomenon that occurs throughout the universe. In terms of physics, it is established within the energy field from which particles arise. Two particles of energy brought into proximity spin and polarize identically, even when separated. Two living cells of a human heart brought into proximity begin to beat together. Throughout the animal kingdom and in human life as well, affectionate and tactile bonds between mother and young ensure healthy interaction and development for time to come. Proximity between parent and infant, via sensory experiences and loving interactions, brings them into an important synchrony with each other.

Imprinting

Animal researchers discovered imprinting long ago, when ethologist Konrad Lorenz showed that ducklings were biologically programmed to follow and bond with the first moving object they saw. Meanwhile, Harry Harlow and his associates studied monkeys and goats and found critical bonding times and elements that were important not only for the infant’s physical survival but for what we might call emotional health as well. Monkeys would abuse their infants if their own bonds as infants were disturbed.

In animals, the crucial period for bonding is usually a matter of minutes or hours after birth. The mother bonds with her infant through licking and touching, a type of massage, which in turn helps the infant to adjust physically to life outside the womb. If mother and infant are separated during this time and are subsequently reunited, the mother will often reject or neglect her young. As a result, the newborn may die for lack of the mother’s stimulation, even if fed by other means.  

The Elements of the Bonding Process

I was determined to include as many of the elements of bonding in our massage as possible: eye-to-eye contact, skin-to-skin contact, singing or humming to my baby, allowing natural odors, adding movements to maintain flexibility. The closeness of mother and baby allows the baby to smell the mother; a newborn baby can distinguish the smell of his or her mother from that of another mother. Parents can also recognize their baby from smell alone. Because of this important aspect of bonding, I decided to emphasize the use of unscented oil.

Resilience, as it relates to massage, is an indication of the quality of the bonding/attachment the baby develops with the parent or caregiver. It is through the elements of bonding that babies learn to be resilient, to bounce back from intense experiences.

MOMKISS2_m

The Difference Between Bonding and Attachment

In studies paralleling animal research, doctors John Kennell and Marshall Klaus, among others, have revealed that there is also a sensitive period for bonding in humans. The critical period seems less rigidly defined and may continue for months, even years, after childbirth. Another word often used in connection with bonding is attachment. While bonding is specific to birth and our connection with the animal kingdom, attachment happens over time and can occur between any two beings. 

Frank Bolton, in his book When Bonding Fails describes bonding as a one-directional process that begins in the biological mother during pregnancy and continues through birth and the first days of her baby’s life. Conversely, attachment is an interaction between parents and children, biological or not, that develops during the first year they are together and is reinforced throughout life. He describes it as the feeling that the other is “irreplaceable.”

Often these two terms are interchangeable, because in humans the bonding period is so loosely defined as to merge into the attachment process. Kennel and Klaus define bonding as “a unique relationship between two people that is specific and endures through time.” That definition could also apply to the word attachment.

Kennel and Klaus cited cuddling, kissing, and prolonged gazing as indicators of a developing bond. Dramatic evidence in their studies and others correlates the lack of early bonding and attachment with later abuse, neglect, and failure to thrive. Mothers who are separated from their babies during the newborn period are often more hesitant to learn and unskilled in basic mothering tasks. Even very short separations sometimes adversely affect the relationship between mothers and infants.

Lack of Bond Affects Babies in U.S.

Shockingly, new studies confirm that four out of ten babies born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent. In the early 70s, there was an upsurge of interest in birth and bonding, with parents choosing home births, rooming-in at hospital births, and learning infant massage and other things that brought parents and infants together. But unfortunately, that progress has decreased as time went on, in spite of the upsurge of programs like infant massage.

According to a study at Princeton University, 40 percent of infants in the U.S. live in fear or distrust of their parents, and that translates into aggressiveness, defiance and hyperactivity as they grow into adults. Of that number, 25 percent don’t bond with their parents because the parents aren’t responding to their needs. A tragic 14 percent find their parents so distressing that they avoid them whenever possible.

Sociologist Sophie Moullin of Princeton, lead author of the study, along with coauthors from Columbia University, analyzed more than 100 research projects, including data collected by a U.S. longitudinal study of 14,000 children born in 2001, to reach their conclusions. Yet critical, bonding, the researchers contend, is amazingly simple to achieve. The study notes,“When a parent responds to a child in a warm, sensitive and responsive way – picking up the child when he cries, and holding and reassuring him – the child feels secure that they can meet their needs.” 

Four Out of Ten Babies Do Not Form a Strong Bond

Incredibly, four out of ten infants born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent and, according to the authors of an article on the subject, “they will pay for that the rest of their lives.” Other research shows that simply touching, or caressing a newborn is critical to the infant’s sense of security. Infant massage, therefore, becomes an incredibly important art for parents to learn.

Usually it is the mother who is the central focus of studies like these, probably because the mother is often the main caregiver, especially in infancy. But a study at the University of Iowa two years ago concluded that “being attached to dad is just as helpful and being close to mom.” A similar study in 2012 from the Imperial College London found that fathers were especially important in helping the infant avoid behavioral problems later in life. If the father is remote or distracted, the child is more likely to be aggressive.

Infant Massage, Bonding, Babywearing and Attachment

The Fourth Trimester

During my time of research in 1975-1976, I made many trips to the medical library, studying everything I could find regarding the effects of touch between parents and infants. I read through anatomy books and edited some of my massage routine, working with the babies’ internal organs.

For example, the tummy strokes follow the intestinal tract and colon, which helps strengthen these organs and they begin to do their work earlier than they might have; I discovered that many researchers and physicians called the first few months of life the “fourth trimester.” Newborns are helpless; they cannot get up and walk like many animals.

We are like kangaroos in this way; our babies need a few months more with the soothing touch of a parent’s massage, skin-to-skin contact, and carrying. Their gastrointestinal systems are not yet mature, and many infants experience “colic,” or painful gas and digestion. The elements of massage that help babies eliminate fecal matter and gas are the sweeping of palms down from rib cage to pelvis, and the clockwise strokes over the stomach that move trapped matter down and out.

Parent-Infant Bonding – A New Concept in 1976

In 1976, Dr.s Kennel and Klaus published their groundbreaking research on bonding. Their work inspired me so much, along with what I read in Montague’s research, I decided to massage my baby every day from the beginning. It was just the right timing — in our culture there was a kind of explosion of interest in, and acceptance of the importance of the elements of bonding and good birth practices. In September of 1976, I gave birth to my first child. I began massaging him, starting with the massage I had learned in India and gradually adding and revising strokes and the order of the strokes, and writing information that would become handouts in my classes later on. I took the notes that would be the foundation of my book, Infant Massage, a Handbook for Loving Parents

What is Bonding?

Bonding is a basic phenomenon that occurs throughout the universe. In terms of physics, it is established within the energy field from which particles arise. Two particles of energy brought into proximity spin and polarize identically, even when separated. Two living cells of a human heart brought into proximity begin to beat together. Throughout the animal kingdom and in human life as well, affectionate and tactile bonds between mother and young ensure healthy interaction and development for time to come. Proximity between parent and infant, via sensory experiences and loving interactions, brings them into an important synchrony with each other.

Imprinting

Animal researchers discovered imprinting long ago, when ethologist Konrad Lorenz showed that ducklings were biologically programmed to follow and bond with the first moving object they saw. Meanwhile, Harry Harlow and his associates studied monkeys and goats and found critical bonding times and elements that were important not only for the infant’s physical survival but for what we might call emotional health as well. Monkeys would abuse their infants if their own bonds as infants were disturbed.

In animals, the crucial period for bonding is usually a matter of minutes or hours after birth. The mother bonds with her infant through licking and touching, a type of massage, which in turn helps the infant to adjust physically to life outside the womb. If mother and infant are separated during this time and are subsequently reunited, the mother will often reject or neglect her young. As a result, the newborn may die for lack of the mother’s stimulation, even if fed by other means.  

The Elements of the Bonding Process

I was determined to include as many of the elements of bonding in our massage as possible: eye-to-eye contact, skin-to-skin contact, singing or humming to my baby, allowing natural odors, adding movements to maintain flexibility. The closeness of mother and baby allows the baby to smell the mother; a newborn baby can distinguish the smell of his or her mother from that of another mother. Parents can also recognize their baby from smell alone. Because of this important aspect of bonding, I decided to emphasize the use of unscented oil.

Resilience, as it relates to massage, is an indication of the quality of the bonding/attachment the baby develops with the parent or caregiver. It is through the elements of bonding that babies learn to be resilient, to bounce back from intense experiences.

MOMKISS2_m

The Difference Between Bonding and Attachment

In studies paralleling animal research, doctors John Kennell and Marshall Klaus, among others, have revealed that there is also a sensitive period for bonding in humans. The critical period seems less rigidly defined and may continue for months, even years, after childbirth. Another word often used in connection with bonding is attachment. While bonding is specific to birth and our connection with the animal kingdom, attachment happens over time and can occur between any two beings. 

Frank Bolton, in his book When Bonding Fails describes bonding as a one-directional process that begins in the biological mother during pregnancy and continues through birth and the first days of her baby’s life. Conversely, attachment is an interaction between parents and children, biological or not, that develops during the first year they are together and is reinforced throughout life. He describes it as the feeling that the other is “irreplaceable.”

Often these two terms are interchangeable, because in humans the bonding period is so loosely defined as to merge into the attachment process. Kennel and Klaus define bonding as “a unique relationship between two people that is specific and endures through time.” That definition could also apply to the word attachment.

Kennel and Klaus cited cuddling, kissing, and prolonged gazing as indicators of a developing bond. Dramatic evidence in their studies and others correlates the lack of early bonding and attachment with later abuse, neglect, and failure to thrive. Mothers who are separated from their babies during the newborn period are often more hesitant to learn and unskilled in basic mothering tasks. Even very short separations sometimes adversely affect the relationship between mothers and infants.

Lack of Bond Affects Babies in U.S.

Shockingly, new studies confirm that four out of ten babies born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent. In the early 70s, there was an upsurge of interest in birth and bonding, with parents choosing home births, rooming-in at hospital births, and learning infant massage and other things that brought parents and infants together. But unfortunately, that progress has decreased as time went on, in spite of the upsurge of programs like infant massage.

According to a study at Princeton University, 40 percent of infants in the U.S. live in fear or distrust of their parents, and that translates into aggressiveness, defiance and hyperactivity as they grow into adults. Of that number, 25 percent don’t bond with their parents because the parents aren’t responding to their needs. A tragic 14 percent find their parents so distressing that they avoid them whenever possible.

Sociologist Sophie Moullin of Princeton, lead author of the study, along with coauthors from Columbia University, analyzed more than 100 research projects, including data collected by a U.S. longitudinal study of 14,000 children born in 2001, to reach their conclusions. Yet critical, bonding, the researchers contend, is amazingly simple to achieve. The study notes,“When a parent responds to a child in a warm, sensitive and responsive way – picking up the child when he cries, and holding and reassuring him – the child feels secure that they can meet their needs.” 

Four Out of Ten Babies Do Not Form a Strong Bond

Incredibly, four out of ten infants born in the U.S. do not form a strong bond with either parent and, according to the authors of an article on the subject, “they will pay for that the rest of their lives.” Other research shows that simply touching, or caressing a newborn is critical to the infant’s sense of security. Infant massage, therefore, becomes an incredibly important art for parents to learn.

Usually it is the mother who is the central focus of studies like these, probably because the mother is often the main caregiver, especially in infancy. But a study at the University of Iowa two years ago concluded that “being attached to dad is just as helpful and being close to mom.” A similar study in 2012 from the Imperial College London found that fathers were especially important in helping the infant avoid behavioral problems later in life. If the father is remote or distracted, the child is more likely to be aggressive.

INFANT MASSAGE: STRESS AND RELAXATION

Infant massage is one tool we have to help reshape our child’s interpretations of the world, to release her pain, grief, and fear, and to open her up to love and joy.

Touch meets a baby’s needs for physical contact, affection, security, stimulation, and movement. Skin-to-skin contact is especially effective, such as during breastfeeding, bathing, or massage. Carrying or babywearing also meets this need while on the go. Hugs, snuggling, back rubs, massage, and physical play help meet this need in older children.

In our great-grandmothers’ day, when a baby developed a fever, the outcome was uncertain. Each century’s children have been plagued with some debilitating disease. Though many contagions have been eliminated through improved environmental conditions and medicine, our century is characterized by a more subtle and insidious malady — stress.

Stress can begin to affect a baby even before he is born. The levels of stress hormones that are constantly present in a woman’s bloodstream directly affect her unborn infant, crossing the placenta to enter his own bloodstream. Studies have shown that prolonged tension and anxiety can hamper a pregnant woman’s ability to absorb nourishment. Her baby may be of low birth weight, hyperactive, and irritable.

If we understand that our experiences and reactions influence our own biochemistry by sending life-enhancing or fear-producing chemicals throughout our bodies, it is not difficult to understand that these chemicals are also sent through our unborn baby’s body. Her cells receive this “information” and program her structure accordingly. Thus, even before birth, a baby can unconsciously perceive the world as a place of anxiety and stress, to fight or be victimized by, or a place of safety and love, to enjoy and fully experience. This is not to say all is lost if life circumstances are less than perfect. Infant massage is one tool we have to help reshape our child’s interpretations of the world, to release her pain, grief, and fear, and to open her up to love and joy. As we evolve to be more conscious beings, we understand more deeply how important our mental states are, both to our own health and longevity and to our children’s health, longevity, intelligence, and ability to experience and give love and joy.

Babies born centuries ago in more primitive cultures had the advantage of extended families, natural environments, and relatively little change. Our children, born into a rapidly advancing technological world, must effectively handle stress if they are to survive and prosper. Thus must give them every opportunity, from conception on, to learn positive, adaptive responses to stress and to believe in their own power and adaptability.

We certainly cannot eliminate stress, nor would we wish to, for in the proper doses it is an essential component in the growth of intelligence. Let’s see how this works. In times of stress, the pituitary gland produces a hormone called ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which activates the adrenal steroids, organizing the body and brain to deal with an unknown or unpredictable emergency. In experiments with laboratory animals, this hormone has been found to stimulate the production of many new proteins in the liver and brain — proteins that are instrumental in both learning and memory. On being given ACTH, the animals’ brains grow millions of new connecting links between the neurons (thinking cells). These links enable the brain to process information.

The stress of meeting unknown situations and converting them into what is known and predictable is essential for our babies’ brain development. But stress is only part of the cycle that enhances learning. Without its equally important opposite — relaxation — stress can lead to overstimulation, exhaustion, and shock. When stress piles upon stress without the relief of an equal portion of relaxation, the body begins to shut out all sensory intake and the learning process is completely blocked. As neuroscientist Bruce Lipton described, between the two choices — protection-related or growth-promoting — protection-related biological behaviors kick in, thus preventing growth or learning.

How does this apply to infant massage? First, massage is one way we can provide our children with relaxing, joyful experiences. Through the use of conditioned response techniques similar to those developed for childbirth by Lamaze and others, we can teach our babies how to relax their bodies in response to stress. The ability to relax consciously is a tremendous advantage in coping with the pressures of growing up in modern society. If acquired early in life, the realization response can become as much a part of our children’s natural system as the antibodies that protect them from disease.

Stress is a natural part of an infant’s life, but often our babies are not able to benefit from it as much as they could. Our fast-paced society overloads them with input, but it is unacceptable for them to cry to release tension. This double bind leads to many frustrated babies with a lot of pent-up tension and anxiety.

Massage helps babies practice handling input and responding to it with relaxation. Watch an experienced mother massaging her baby. You will see both stress and relaxation in the rhythmic strokes and in the baby’s reactions. The infant experiences all kinds of new sensations, feelings, odors, sounds, and sights. The rumbles of his tummy, the warm sensation of increased circulation, the movement of air on his bare skin — all are mildly stressful to him. The pleasant tone of his mother’s voice, her smile and her touch are relaxing and relieve the discomfort of encountering these new sensations. The reassures him that the world outside the womb is, as Dr. Frederick Laborers says, “still alive, and warm, and beating, and friendly.”

A daily massage gradually raises an infant’s stimulation threshold. Babies who have difficulty handling stimulation gradually build tolerance. High-need babies begin to learn to regulate the manner in which they respond to stressful experiences, which reduces the level of tension they develop throughout the day. Colicky babies are calmed and able to relax their bodies so that tension doesn’t escalate their discomfort. A regular massage provides our babies with an early stress management program that will be valuable to them in years to come.

INTO ADULTHOOD

Psychologists study the types of attachments we form in our infant as predictors of the types of relationships we will have as adults. People whose infancy was secure, who were held and listened to, who had good eye contact with their parents, and who were generally cherished tend to have healthier relationships with others. Getting close to others is easy, and they have no problem with interdependency (the ability to depend on and be depended on, appropriately). They have happy, trusting relationships; their romances last the longest and end in divorce the least often of groups studied. On the other hand, babies whose attachment bonds are insecure or anxious are later less sympathetic to others and less effective in getting support and help from other people. Their relationships lack trust and intimacy; jealousy and commitment problems and fears undermine friendships as well as marriages. People whose bonds are constantly broken in infancy have a much greater risk of becoming sociopathic criminals in their adulthood unless they receive serious intervention at an early stage.

The bonds of trust and love, the lessons of compassion, warmth, openness, and respect that are inherent in the massage routine will be carried by your child into adulthood. Especially if your parenting practices reflect the same values of infant massage, your child will be more likely to respond to others with compassion and altruism and to experience life as a joyful adventure in which he has the opportunity to love and be loved — to help others and extend himself in genuine service to humanity.

© 2019 Vimala McClure

INFANT MASSAGE: A HANDBOOK FOR LOVING PARENTS – NEW EDITION!

I am happy to announce that the new updated, expanded edition of Infant Massage: a Handbook for Loving Parents has been released by Random House. It is available on Amazon.com and from most bookstores.

CHAPTERS:

  1. Why Massage Your Baby?

  2. Your Baby’s Sensory World

  3. The Importance of Skin Stimulation

  4. Stress and Relaxation

  5. Bonding, Attachment, and Infant Massage

  6. The Elements of Bonding

  7. Attachment and the Benefits of Infant Massage

  8. Especially for Fathers

  9. Helping your Baby (and you) Learn to Relax

  10. Your Baby’s Brain

  11. Music and Massage

  12. Getting Ready

  13. How to Massage Your Baby

  14. Crying, Fussing, and Other Baby Language (including cues, reflexes and behavioral states

  15. Minor Illness and Colic

  16. Your Premature Baby

  17. Your Baby with Special Needs

  18. Your Growing Child and Sibling Bonding through Infant Massage

  19. Your Adopted or Foster Children

  20. A Note to Teen Parents

BACK MATTER INCLUDES:

References and Recommendations

Resources

Author Bio

THE IMPORTANCE OF SKIN STIMULATION FOR HUMAN BABIES

Mothers who have meaningful skin contact during pregnancy and labor tend to have easier labors and are more responsive to their infants. Touching and handling her baby assists the new mother in milk production by aiding in the secretion of prolactin, the “mothering hormone.” By regularly massaging her baby, the mother not only sets up a cycle of healthy responses which improves her mothering abilities day by day, but also enhances her baby’s well-being, his disposition, and the relationship between the two of them. The process begun at the embryonic stage thus continues, allowing a natural unfolding of the baby’s potential within the safe and loving arms of his mother.

Nurturing stimulation of the skin—handling, cuddling, rocking and massage—increases cardiac functions of the human infant; massage stimulates the respiratory, circulatory, and gastrointestinal systems—benefits especially appreciated by the “colicky” baby and his parents.

A baby’s first experience with the surrounding environment occurs through touch, developing prenatally as early as 16 weeks. Nature begins the massage before the baby is born. As opposed to the extremely short labors of most other animals, it has been suggested that a human mother’s extended labor helps make up for the lack of postpartum licking performed by other mammal mothers. For the human infant, the contractions of labor provide some of the same type of preparation for the functioning of his internal systems as early licking of the newborn does for other mammals.

Touch impacts short-term development during infancy and early childhood, and has long-term effects. Through this contact, newborns are able to learn about their world, bond with their parents, and communicate their needs and wants. Eighty percent of a baby’s communication is expressed through body movement. When parents engage in appropriate touch, young children have an improved chance to successfully develop socially, emotionally, and intellectually.

Infants who experience more physical contact with parents demonstrate increased mental development in the first six months of life compared to young children who receive limited physical interaction. This improved cognitive development has been shown to last even after eight years, illustrating the importance of positive interactions. Infants who receive above-average levels of affection from their parents are shown to be less likely to be hostile, anxious, or emotionally distressed as adults.

Studies with premature babies using techniques similar to those taught in this book have demonstrated that daily massage is of tremendous benefit. Research projects at the University of Miami Medical Center, headed up by the Touch Research Institute’s founder, Dr. Tiffany Field, have shown remarkable results. In one study, twenty premature babies were massaged three times a day for fifteen minutes each. They averaged forty-seven percent greater weight gain per day, were more active and alert, and showed more mature neurological development than infants who did not receive massage. In addition, their hospital stay averaged six days less. After many years of study and observation, the International Association of Infant Massage has established guidelines for using massage and holding techniques with premature babies.

Dallas psychologist Ruth Rice conducted a study with thirty premature babies after they had left the hospital. She divided them into two groups. The mothers in the control group were instructed in usual newborn care, while those in the experimental group were taught a daily massage and rocking regime. At four months of age, the babies who had been massaged were ahead in both neurological development and weight gain.

The natural sensory stimulation of massage speeds myelination of the brain and the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a fatty covering around each nerve, like insulation around electric wire. It protects the nervous system and speeds the transmission of impulses from the brain to the rest of the body. The process of coating the nerves is not complete at birth, but skin stimulation speeds the process, thus enhancing rapid neural-cell firing and improving brain-body communication.

In 1978 transcutaneous oxygen monitoring was developed, which enabled physicians to measure oxygen tension in the body through an electrode on the skin. It was discovered that hospitalized infants experienced tremendous upheavals in oxygen levels when subjected to stress. Touch Relaxation, holding techniques and massage have been found to mitigate these fluctuations, and these methods are being used in hospitals routinely now to help infants maintain a steady state through the stresses of diaper changes, heel sticks, and other intrusions.

New research demonstrates similar results every day, confirming what age-old tradition has told us: infants need loving touch. Lawrence Schachner, M.D., a professor at the department of dermatology and cutaneous surgery at the University of Miami School of Medicine, advises that touch can benefit babies with skin disorders such as eczema. “It may furthermore improve parent-baby interaction,” he says. Dr. Tiffany Field concurs. She notes that loving touch triggers physiological changes that help infants grow and develop, stimulating nerves in the brain that facilitate food absorption and lowering stress hormone levels, resulting in improved immune system functioning. A report by the Families and Work Institutes states that during the first three years of life, the vast majority of connections between brain cells are formed. They conclude that loving interaction such as massage can directly affect a child’s emotional development and ability to handle stress as an adult.

Loving skin contact and massage benefits mothers and fathers as well. Mothers who have meaningful skin contact during pregnancy and labor tend to have easier labors and are more responsive to their infants. In addition, research has shown that mothers whose pregnancies were filled with chronic stress often have babies who cry more and for longer periods than those whose pregnancies were peaceful and supported.

Fathers who make the effort to bond with their infants by giving the mother loving massages, talking and singing to the baby, feeling its movements in his partner’s belly, attending classes with their partner, and reading up on infant development and psychology, and massaging their infants, tend to be more attentive and accomplished fathers. By regularly massaging your baby (and getting some loving massages yourself during pregnancy), you set up a cycle of healthy responses that improve your mothering skills day by day and enhance your baby’s well-being, disposition, and the relationship between all three of you.

Google Translate

Source: Google Translate

Many parents believe it is useful to let your baby mourn. The popular wisdom says that a few minutes of crying do not harm but help him calm down and get sleep.

This is the technique of progressive expected , which was developed by Dr. Richard Ferber, neurologist and pediatrician at Harvard University at Children ‘s Hospital Boston (USA) , which is still used today worldwide.

Almost no one really knows what happens when babies keep crying, but the physical and psychological consequences could affect his whole life.

When a baby cries without their parents consoled increases your stress level because, through her tears, wants to express something , either hunger, pain or even need company. The child is totally dependent on them.

If parents ignore their calls, your body will produce stress hormones and, eventually, this may damage your central nervous system , as well as their growth and learning ability.

In an interview for the German newspaper Sueddeutsche Zeitung , Karl Heinrich Brisch, chief of psychosomatic medicine at Children ‘s Hospital of the University of Munich, explained that babies who leave mourn “quickly learn to activate an emergency program in its brain, similar to the reflex action of the tanatosis observed in some animals who see their lives threatened, and that is to simulate death. “ This affects brain development, so children do not learn to adapt to stress.

Three Core Concepts in Early Development

This video series depicts how advances in neuroscience, molecular biology, and genomics give us a better understanding of how early experiences are built into our bodies and brains.

Source: Three Core Concepts in Early Development

Serve and Return

Serve and return interactions shape brain architecture. When caregivers are responsive to children’s signals, they help them build critical skills.

Source: Serve and Return

Because responsive relationships are both expected and essential, their absence is a serious threat to a child’s development and well-being. Healthy brain architecture depends on a sturdy foundation built by appropriate input from a child’s senses and stable, responsive relationships with caring adults. If an adult’s responses to a child are unreliable, inappropriate, or simply absent, the developing architecture of the brain may be disrupted, and subsequent physical, mental, and emotional health may be impaired. The persistent absence of serve and return interaction acts as a “double whammy” for healthy development: not only does the brain not receive the positive stimulation it needs, but the body’s stress response is activated, flooding the developing brain with potentially harmful stress hormones.